Characterisation of grids of point detectors in maximum skin dose measurement in fluoroscopically-guided interventional procedures

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Jérémie Dabin
  • Anna Negri
  • Jad Farah
  • Olivera Ciraj-Bjelac
  • Isabelle Clairand
  • Cinzia De Angelis
  • Joanna Domienik
  • Hannu Jarvinen
  • Renata Kopec
  • Marija Majer
  • Françoise Malchair
  • Leos Novak
  • Teemu Siiskonen
  • Filip Vanhavere
  • Annalisa Trianni
  • Zeljka Knezevic

Institutes & Expert groups

  • IOV IRCCS - Istituto Oncologico Veneto - Italy
  • IRSN - Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety - Institut Radioprotection Sûreté Nucléaire
  • University of Belgrade - Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences
  • NIOM - Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
  • STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority
  • IFJ–PAN - The Henryk Niewodniczanski - Institute of Nuclear Physics
  • RBI - Ruđer Bošković Institute
  • CHU - Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège
  • University Hospital of Udine

Documents & links


Purpose: Point detectors are frequently used to measure patient's maximum skin dose (MSD) in fluoroscopically-guided interventional procedures (IP). However, their performance and ability to detect the actual MSD are rarely evaluated. The present study investigates the sampling uncertainty associated with the use of grids of point detectors to measure MSD in IP.

Method: Chemoembolisation of the liver (CE), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and neuroembolisation (NE) procedures were studied. Spatial dose distributions were measured with XR-RV3 Gafchromic (R) films for 176 procedures. These distributions were used to simulate measurements performed using grids of detectors such as thermoluminescence detectors, with detector spacing from 1.4 up to 10 cm.

Results: The sampling uncertainty was the highest in PCI and NE procedures. With 40 detectors covering the film area (36 cm x 44 cm), the maximum dose would be on average 86% and 63% of the MSD measured with Gafchromic (R) films in CE and PCI procedures, respectively. In NE procedures, with 27 detectors covering the film area (14 cm x 35 cm), the maximum dose measured would be on average 82% of the MSD obtained with the Gafchromic (R) films.

Conclusion: Thermoluminescence detectors show good energy and dose response in clinical beam qualities. However the poor spatial resolution of such point-like dosimeters may far outweigh their good dosimetric properties. The uncertainty from the sampling procedure should be estimated when point detectors are used in IP because it may lead to strong underestimation of the MSD.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1112
Number of pages1117
JournalPhysica Medica
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


  • Fluoroscopically-guided procedures, TLD, Sampling uncertainty , Point detectors , Maximum skin dose

ID: 854868