Comparison of solid metal–metal oxide reference electrodes for potentiometric oxygen sensors in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic operating at low temperature ranges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Institutes & Expert groups

  • VUB - Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Documents & links


Potentiometric oxygen sensors with metal–metal oxide reference electrodes including Cu/Cu2O, Ni/NiO and Fe/Fe3O4 were tested in oxygen saturated lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) over the temperature range from 200 to 450 °C to assess their minimum operating temperature limit. The performance of sensors with the three reference electrodes was compared to that of a sensor with air/lanthanum strontium manganese oxide (LSM) reference electrode using the same solid electrolyte material and measurement setup. The sensor with Cu/Cu2O reference electrode performed well down to 200 °C in oxygen saturated LBE, while those with Ni/NiO and Fe/Fe3O4 showed significant deviations from expected values below 300 °C. Furthermore, the sensor with Cu/Cu2O electrode showed a response to temperature variations as fast as that of the air/LSM electrode over the entire temperature range of interest in liquid LBE.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-28
JournalSensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • MYRRHA, Potentiometric oxygen sensor, Lead–bismuth eutectic, Cu/Cu2O

ID: 787653