Compatibility of martensitic/austenitic steel welds with liquid lead bismuth eutectic environment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Institutes & Expert groups

Documents & links


The high-chromium ferritic/martensitic steel T91 and the austenitic stainless steel 316L are to be used in contact with liquid lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE), under high irradiation doses. Both tungsten inert gas (TIG) and electron beam (EB) T91/316L welds have been examined by means of metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), Vickers hardness measurements and tensile testing both in inert gas and in LBE. Although the T91/316L TIG weld has very good mechanical properties when tested in air, its properties decline sharply when tested in LBE. This degradation in mechanical properties is attributed to the liquid metal embrittlement of the 309 buttering used in TIG welding of T91/316L welds. In contrast to mixed T91/316L TIG welding, the mixed T91/316L EB weld was performed without buttering. The mechanical behaviour of the T91/316L EB weld was very good in air after post weld heat treatment but deteriorated when tested in LBE.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)504-509
JournalJournal of Nuclear Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009


  • lead-bismuth eutectic, T91, 316L, Liquid metal embrittlement, weld, TIG, EB

ID: 136677