Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant

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Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant. / Gladinez, Kristof; Rosseel, Kris; Lim, Jun; Shin, Yong-Hoon; Aerts, Alexander.

In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 357, 110382, 24.10.2019, p. 1-12.

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@article{0cbac47f3ee24ab99f7bbf21fe2069bc,
title = "Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant",
abstract = "An increased interest in the use of liquid metals for novel energy conversion systems is present today. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS) called MYRRHA under design at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) is an example of such an innovative system. The use of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as a coolant for this reactor implies that an accurate knowledge on the chemical properties of the coolant needs to be available. An important factor is the risk of coolant oxidation due to oxygen ingress in the system. Although the formation of lead oxide (PbO) is well understood, the deposition mechanism and kinetics are not yet studied. In this work the deposition mechanism of PbO on 316L stainless steel is investigated. The evolution of the dissolved oxygen concentration during thermal cycling of LBE indicates that fouling of isothermal surfaces by PbO can only proceed by particle deposition. On the other hand, the fouling of non-isothermal surfaces by PbO is dominated by crystallization fouling. A real-time measurement of the PbO deposition rate shows an asymptotic behavior of PbO crystallization fouling. By predicting the onset of PbO nucleation and subsequent growth, a kinetic model for the crystallization fouling is put forward. Quantitative agreement between deposition rate predictions and validation measurements is obtained around 673 K",
keywords = "Crystallization fouling, Deposition, Nucleation, Lead-bismuth eutectic, Lead oxide, Accelerator Driven System",
author = "Kristof Gladinez and Kris Rosseel and Jun Lim and Yong-Hoon Shin and Alexander Aerts",
note = "Score=10",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "24",
doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.110382",
language = "English",
volume = "357",
pages = "1--12",
journal = "Nuclear Engineering and Design",
issn = "0029-5493",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Determination of the lead oxide fouling mechanisms in lead bismuth eutectic coolant

AU - Gladinez, Kristof

AU - Rosseel, Kris

AU - Lim, Jun

AU - Shin, Yong-Hoon

AU - Aerts, Alexander

N1 - Score=10

PY - 2019/10/24

Y1 - 2019/10/24

N2 - An increased interest in the use of liquid metals for novel energy conversion systems is present today. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS) called MYRRHA under design at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) is an example of such an innovative system. The use of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as a coolant for this reactor implies that an accurate knowledge on the chemical properties of the coolant needs to be available. An important factor is the risk of coolant oxidation due to oxygen ingress in the system. Although the formation of lead oxide (PbO) is well understood, the deposition mechanism and kinetics are not yet studied. In this work the deposition mechanism of PbO on 316L stainless steel is investigated. The evolution of the dissolved oxygen concentration during thermal cycling of LBE indicates that fouling of isothermal surfaces by PbO can only proceed by particle deposition. On the other hand, the fouling of non-isothermal surfaces by PbO is dominated by crystallization fouling. A real-time measurement of the PbO deposition rate shows an asymptotic behavior of PbO crystallization fouling. By predicting the onset of PbO nucleation and subsequent growth, a kinetic model for the crystallization fouling is put forward. Quantitative agreement between deposition rate predictions and validation measurements is obtained around 673 K

AB - An increased interest in the use of liquid metals for novel energy conversion systems is present today. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS) called MYRRHA under design at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) is an example of such an innovative system. The use of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as a coolant for this reactor implies that an accurate knowledge on the chemical properties of the coolant needs to be available. An important factor is the risk of coolant oxidation due to oxygen ingress in the system. Although the formation of lead oxide (PbO) is well understood, the deposition mechanism and kinetics are not yet studied. In this work the deposition mechanism of PbO on 316L stainless steel is investigated. The evolution of the dissolved oxygen concentration during thermal cycling of LBE indicates that fouling of isothermal surfaces by PbO can only proceed by particle deposition. On the other hand, the fouling of non-isothermal surfaces by PbO is dominated by crystallization fouling. A real-time measurement of the PbO deposition rate shows an asymptotic behavior of PbO crystallization fouling. By predicting the onset of PbO nucleation and subsequent growth, a kinetic model for the crystallization fouling is put forward. Quantitative agreement between deposition rate predictions and validation measurements is obtained around 673 K

KW - Crystallization fouling

KW - Deposition

KW - Nucleation

KW - Lead-bismuth eutectic

KW - Lead oxide

KW - Accelerator Driven System

UR - http://ecm.sckcen.be/OTCS/llisapi.dll/open/36341307

U2 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.110382

DO - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2019.110382

M3 - Article

VL - 357

SP - 1

EP - 12

JO - Nuclear Engineering and Design

JF - Nuclear Engineering and Design

SN - 0029-5493

M1 - 110382

ER -

ID: 5778677