Occupational exposure: with special reference to skin doses in hands and fingers

Research output: Contribution to report/book/conference proceedingsChapter


  • Adela Carnicer
  • Mercè Ginjaume
  • Marta Sans-Merce
  • Laurent Donadille
  • Ilona Barth
  • Filip Vanhavere

Institutes & Expert groups

Documents & links


Nuclear Medicine involves the handling of unsealed radiation sources. Occupational monitoring in nuclear medicine thus includes assessment of both external irradiation of the body and internal exposure due to inhalation or ingestion of radioactive substances. However, when appropriate radiation protection measures are applied, the annual effective dose of nuclear medicine staff is low (around 2 - 3 mSv). However, hand doses can be very high and even exceed the regulatory limit for skin equivalent dose, without workers being aware of it. This chapter provides an overview of basic concepts, regulation and problems associated with occupational monitoring in nuclear medicine. It presents the main results of the FP7 European Project, ORAMED, within the field of extremity dosimetry of nuclear medicine staff and proposes recommendations in order to improve radiation protection in occupational exposure in nuclear medicine.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRadiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine
Place of PublicationGermany
ISBN (Print)978-3-642-31166-6
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013


  • Nuclear medicine, optimization, radiation, protection, medical

ID: 370620