Study of the parameters affecting operator doses in interventional radiology using Monte Carlo simulations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Christina Koukorava
  • Eleftheria Carinou
  • Paolo Ferrari
  • Sabah Krim
  • Lara Struelens

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Measurements performed within the ORAMED project helped to evaluate the doses to the operators’ hands, legs and eye lenses, during several types of interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) procedures. However, the study of the effect of each parameter separately, was possible only through Monte Carlo simulations, as in clinical practice many of those parameters change simultaneously. The proper use of protective shields was found to be the most important way of reducing extremity and eye lens exposure during such examinations. Ceiling suspended shields can reduce the doses to the eye lenses up to 97%, but they can also reduce hand doses about 70% when placed correctly. Additionally, for overcouch irradiations the eyes and the hands are about 6 times more exposed compared to the cases where the tube is below the operating table. For the lateral LAO projection, placing the ceiling suspended shield at the left side of the operator is twice more effective for the protection of the eyes compared to the cases where it is placed above the patient. Finally, beam collimation was found to play an important role in the reduction of the hand doses, especially when the operator is close to the irradiation field.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1216-1222
JournalRadiation Measurements
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011
EventORAMED workshop - Universita politecnica de Barcelona (UPC), Barcelona, Spain
Duration: 20 Jan 201122 Jan 2011


  • interventional radiology, occupational doses, extremity dosimetry, eye lens dosimetry, Monte Carlo simulations

ID: 349833