User manual of the multicomponent variably-saturated flow and transport model HP1

Research output: Report/bookBLG - Open report

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  • BLG-998.pdf

    Final published version, 2.54 MB, PDF document


This report describes a new comprehensive simulation tool HP1 (HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC) that was obtained by coupling the HYDRUS-1D one-dimensional variably-saturated water flow and solute transport model with the PHREEQC geochemical code. The HP1 code incorporates modules simulating (1) transient water flow in variably-saturated media, (2) transport of multiple components, and (3) mixed equilibrium/kinetic geochemical reactions. The program numerically solves the Richards equation for variably-saturated water flow and advection-dispersion type equations for heat and solute transport. The flow equation incorporates a sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The heat transport equation considers transport due to conduction and convection with flowing water. The solute transport equations consider advective-dispersive transport in the liquid phase. The program can simulate a broad range of low-temperature biogeochemical reactions in water, soil and ground water systems including interactions with minerals, gases, exchangers, and sorption surfaces, based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics, or mixed equilibrium-kinetic reactions. The program may be used to analyze water and solute movement in unsaturated, partially saturated, or fully saturated porous media. The flow region may be composed of nonuniform soils or sediments. Flow and transport can occur in the vertical, horizontal, or a generally inclined direction. The water flow part of the model can deal with prescribed head and flux boundaries, boundaries controlled by atmospheric conditions, as well as free drainage boundary conditions. The governing flow and transport equations were solved numerically using Galerkin-type linear finite element schemes. To test the accuracy of the coupling procedures implemented in HP1, simulation results were compared with (i) HYDRUS-1D for transport problems of multiple components subject to sequential first-order decay, (ii) PHREEQC for steady-state flow conditions, and (iii) calculations obtained from an independent geochemical transport model (CRUNCH) for several relatively complex problems. Nine verification examples of increasing complexity are described in this report. This report serves as both a user manual and reference document. Detailed instructions for input data preparation and interpretation of output data are given in the manuals of the original HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC codes. The graphical user interfaces of both HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC can be used for easy input data preparation and output display in the MS Windows environment.


Original languageEnglish
PublisherSCK CEN
Number of pages79
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2005

Publication series

NameSCK•CEN Reports
PublisherStudiecentrum voor Kernenergie


  • Biogeochemical model, variably-saturated water flow, multicomponent solute transport, dissolution/precipitation, cation exchange, aqueous complexation, benchmark calculations, vadose zone

ID: 163908